Pahela Baishakh: The advent of
Bengali New Year is gaily observed throughout the country. The Day
(mid-April) is a public holiday. Most colorful daylong gatherings
along with arrangement of cultural program and traditional
Panta at Ramna Park, Dhaka is a special feature of Pahela
Baishakh. Tournaments, boat races etc. are held in cities and
villages amidst great jubilation. Many fairs are held in Dhaka and
other towns and villages.
Day:: March 26 is the day of Independence of
Bangladesh. It is the biggest state festival. This day is most
befittingly observed and the capital wears a festive look. It is a
public holiday. The citizens of Dhaka wake up early in the morning
with the booming of guns heralding the day. Citizens including
government leaders and sociopolitical organizations and freedom
fighters place floral wreaths at the National Martyrs Monument at
Savar. Bangla Academy, Bangladesh Shilpakala Academy and other
socio-cultural organizations hold cultural functions. At night the
main public buildings are tastefully illuminated to give the capital
city a dazzling look. Similar functions are arranged in other parts
of the country.
21st Feb, the National Mourning
Day and World Mother Language Day: 21
February is observed throughout the country to pay respect and
homage to the sacred souls of the martyrs' of Language Movement of
1952. Blood was shed on this day at the Central Shahid Minar (near
Dhaka Medical College Hospital) area to establish Bangla as a state
language of the then Pakistan. All subsequent movements including
struggle for independence owe their origin to the historic language
movement. The Shahid Minar (martyrs monument) is the symbol of
sacrifice for Bangla, the mother tongue. The day is closed holiday.
Mourning procedure begin in Dhaka at midnight with the song Amar
vaier raktay rangano ekushay February (21st February, the day
stained with my brothers'
blood). Nationals pay homage to the martyrs by placing flora
wreaths at the Shahid Minar. Very recently the day has been declared
World Mother Language Day by UNESCO.
is the birth and death day of Prophet Muhammad (s). He was born and
died the same day on 12th Rabiul Awal (Lunar Month). The day is
national holiday, national flag is flown atop public and private
houses and special food is served in orphanages, hospitals and
jails. At night important public buildings are illuminated and
milad mahfils are held.
The biggest Muslim
festival observed throughout the world. This is held on the day
following the Ramadan or the month of fasting. In Dhaka big
congregations are held at the National Eidgah and many mosques.
festival of the Muslims. It is held marking the Hajj in Mecca on the
10th Zilhaj, the lunar month. Eid congregations are held
throughout the country. Animals are sacrificed in reminiscence of
Hazrat Ibrahim's (AM) preparedness for the supreme sacrifice of his
beloved son to Allah. It is a public holiday.
procession is a ceremonial mournful procession of Muslim community.
A large procession is brought out from the Hussaini Dalan Imambara
on 10th Muharram in memory of the tragic martyrdom of Imam Hussain
(RA) on this day at Karbala in Iraq.
Same observations are made
elsewhere in the country.
Durga Puja: Durga Puja, the
biggest festival of the Hindu community continues for ten days, the
last three days being culmination with the idol immersed in rivers.
In Dhaka the big celebrations are held at Dhakeswari Temple, where a
fair is also held and at the Ram Krishna Mission.
popularly called "Bara Din (Big Day)", is celebrated with pomp in
Dhaka and elsewhere in the country. Several day-long large
gatherings are held at St. Mary's Cathedral at Ramna, Portuguese
Church at Tejgaon, Church of Bangladesh (Protestant) on Johnson Road
and Bangladesh Baptist Sangha at Sadarghat Dhaka. Functions include
illumination of churches, decorating Christmas tree and other
Rabindra & Nazrul
Birth anniversary of the noble laureate
Rabindranath Tagore on 25th Baishakh (May) and that of
the National Poet Kazi Nazrul Islam on 11th Jaystha (May) are
observed throughout the country. Their death anniversaries are also
marked in the same way. Big gatherings and song sessions organized
by socio-cultural organizations are salient features of the
observance of the days. Tagore is the writer of our national anthem
while National Poet Kazi Nazrul Islam is famous as Rebel Poet.
the official language of Bangladesh. It is also spoken in West
Bengal. Bangalees protected Bangla from the clutches of Pakistani
oppressors in 1952 by preventing Urdu from being the state language
of East Pakistan where a vast majority of people spoke in Bangla.
Bangalees had to sacrifice lives for their mother tongue on 21st
February, 1952. 21st February being declared
International Mother Language Day by UNESCO, Bangla
reached the peak of maturity.
direct ancestor is a form of Magadhi Prakrit or Middle
Indo-Aryan which descended from Sanskrit or Old Indo-Aryan. Bangla
evolved mainly from Sanskrit. Also Hindi, Urdu, Farsi,
English--all contributed lots of words and terms to form this
The Origin of Bangla
Alphabet::Bangla alphabet originated from Brahmi alphabet of
the Asokan inscriptions. The Bangla script in its present printed
form took shape in 1778 when printing types were first cast by
Charles Wilkins. There still remained a few archaic forms and these
were finally replaced in the middle of the nineteenth century.
Records: For old Bangla the only record is
Charjapad discovered from a palace in Nepal by Haraprasad
Shastri. It is a collection of the oldest verses thought to be the
oldest records of Bangla literature. The language of
Charjapad is basically vernacular, but at the same time
it is also something of a literary language.
Bangla at the present day has
two literary styles. One is called "Sadhu Bhasha" and the
other "Chalit Bhasa". The former is the traditional literary
style based on Middle Bangla of the sixteenth century. The later is
practically a creation of the present century, and is based on the
cultivated form of the dialect and day-to-day talks. The difference
between the two literary styles is not very sharp. The vocabulary is
practically the same. The difference lies mainly in the forms of the
pronoun and the verb. The Sadhu Bhasa has the old and heavier forms
while the Chalit Bhasa uses the modern and lighter forms. The former
shows a partiality for lexical words and for compound words of the
Sanskrit type, and the latter prefers colloquial words, phrases and
idioms. The Chalit Bhasa was first seriously taken up by Pramatha
Chawdhury at the instance of Rabindranath Tagore during the early
years of the first World War. Soon after Tagore practically
discarded Sadhu Bhasa, and Chalit Bhasa is now generally favored by
writers who have no particular fascination for the traditional
International Mother Language Day:
The UNESCO has declared 21st February as
The International Mother Language Day to be observed globally in
recognition of the sacrifices of the Bangla language martyrs who
laid their lives for establishing the rightful place of Bangla. The
proclamation came in the form of a resolution unanimously adopted at
the plenary of the UNESCO at its headquarters in Paris in November
1999. In its resolution the UNESCO said-' 21st February be
proclaimed International Mother Language Day throughout the world to
commemorate the martyrs who sacrificed their lives on this very day
It is a great
tribute and glowing homage paid by the international community to
the language martyrs of Bangladesh. The genesis of the historic
Language Movement which ensued since September 1947 with the
students in the vanguard backed by intellectuals, cultural activists
and patriotic elements was the first spurt of Bangalee nationalistic
upsurge culminating in the sanguinary events of February 21, 1952
and finally leading to the war of Liberation in
The UNESCO in its
resolution said-the recognition was given bearing in mind that all
moves to promote the dissemination of mother tongues will serve not
only to encourage linguistic diversity and multilingual education
but also to develop fuller awareness about linguistic and cultural
traditions throughout the world and to inspire solidarity based on
understanding, tolerance and dialogue.
member countries around the world will observe 21st February as the
International Mother Language Day. The historic 21st February has,
thus, assumed new dimension. The sacrifices of Rafiq, Salam, Jabbar,
Barkat and other martyrs as well as of those tortured and repressed
by the then authoritarian government of Pakistan for championing the
cause of their mother tongue have received now a glorious and new
recognition by the November 1999 resolution of the
who gave support to the proposal of Bangladesh Govt. for declaring
the 21st February as The International Mother Language Day
are Malaysia, Banin, Bhahama, Balaroush, Comoros, Chili,
Dominic Republic, Egypt, Gambia, Honduras, Italy, Iran, Micronesia,
Oman, The Philippines, Papua Newgini, Pakistan, Paraguay, Russian
Federation, Sir Lanka, Saudi Arabia, Surinam, Slovakia, Vanuatu,
Indonesia, India, Ivoricost , Lithuania.